Notes on Transliterations

TransliterationWhen searching our holdings for titles in original script (Arabic, Cyrillic, Armenian or Georgian letters), you have to use the transliteration common in the German library system.

Here you can find information about the rules of the different alphabets. (Most of the linked documents are in German.)



Turkic Languages

  • Transcription for Turcica (Turkish languages in Cyrillic script) [PDF]
  • In the case of the Azerbaijani Latin alphabet, please transliterate the letter “ə” with “ä”.
  • Ottoman titles are reproduced in modern Turkish spelling (see Özege: Eski harflerle basılmış Türkçe eserler kataloğu, 1971-82).
  • For Ottoman manuscripts, a transcription based on the İslam Ansiklopedisi is recommended.
  • Kyrgyz in Arabic script: standardisation by EMKONS project (Miami University, Ohio, USA), in cooperation with National Academy of Sciences in Bishkek. Table on the project’s website


Caucasian Languages

Standard Moroccan Tamazight

International Romanization rules